Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference and Expo on Lipids: Metabolism, Nutrition & Health Orlando, Florida, USA.

Day 3 :

  • Track 6. Plant, Microbial lipids and Essential Oils | Track 7. Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism

Chair

H L Nadaf

University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Session Introduction

H L Nadaf

University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Title: Novel mutations in FAD2B gene identified from new high oleic mutants in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Time : 09:45-10:10

Biography:

H L Nadaf has completed his PhD from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and Post-doctoral research from Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA. He is the Principal Scientist (Plant Breeding) and Head of AICRP on Groundnut, UAS, Dharwad. He has published more than 75 papers in reputed journals.

 

Abstract:

Groundnut is an important oilseed crop in India wherein majority of the produce is crushed for edible oil. Narrow genetic base of groundnut has impeded its genetic improvement in yield and oil quality. In order to induce genetic variation and diversify the source of high oleate trait in groundnut, GPBD 4 (inter-specific derivative), a popular cultivar with inherent resistance to major foliar disease (late leaf spot and rust) was subjected to mutagenesis (EMS and gamma rays). A significant variation in fatty acid profile of mutant progenies was observed in M4 generation. Two stable high oleic (>70%) mutant lines viz., GM6-1 and GM4-3 were isolated and utilized for characterization of FAD 2B gene that control oleic and linoleic acid content in seeds. Cloning and sequencing of FAD 2B gene from parent GPBD 4, GM6-1 and GM4-3 revealed two novel mutations (1085A→G and 1111G→A) in GM 6-1 and single transition 1111G→A in GM 4-3. A CAPS (bF19/R1, Mob II enzyme) marker and two SNP (bF19/GM6-1-GM4-3 and bF19/GM6-1) markers that could differentiate the two mutants were developed and tested. These makers were also validated in other high and low oleic genotypes. Some of the RILs derived from TMV 2 × GM 6-1 that were high in oleic acid with resistance to LLS and rust were tested using IPAHM103 and GM2301 markers linked to a common genomic region governing rust and LLS resistance. Thus, these new high oleic mutant lines with resistance to major foliar diseases could help to broaden the genetic base as valuable genetic resources in future groundnut breeding programs.

Speaker
Biography:

Ademola Ayeleso has completed his Doctoral degree in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa in 2013. He is presently a Post-doctoral Research Fellow under the headship of Prof. Emmanuel Mukwevho at the North-West University, South Africa. His research has focused more on therapeutic approaches to the management of diabetes mellitus.

Abstract:

Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II has beneficial roles in metabolism and health. Lipid droplets inhibit insulin-sensitive glucose transporters, accounting for insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis in the mitochondria is also decreased in type 2 diabetes subjects. The aim of the study was to examine the role of (CaMK)II activation on lipid droplets and mitochondria function in rat skeletal muscle. Induction of (CaMK)II in the male Wistar rats was done through exercise and the inhibition of exercise-induced (CaMK)II was achieved by administration of KN93. Gastrocnemius muscles were extracted from rats in the control, exercise and exercise + KN93 groups. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine lipid droplet size/number and mitochondria size. ATP synthesis was done using CellTiter-Glo luminescent assay. The results showed that exercise-induced (CaMK)II activation significantly decreased lipid droplet size and number. There was also a significant increase in the mitochondrial size and ATP synthesis due exercise-induced (CaMK)II activation. In conclusion, the study showed that exercise through the induction (CaMK)II can help to regulate lipid droplets formation and improve mitochondria function. Hence, may help to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Break: Networking and Refreshments 10:35-10:55
  • Young Researchers Forum

Session Introduction

Xi Xie

University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Title: Ketoacylsynthase domains of a PUFA synthase in Thraustochytrium can function as standalone enzymes in Escherichia coli

Time : 10:55-11:20

Speaker
Biography:

Xi Xie completed her MSc. in food science from South China Agrcultural University, China. After graduation, She came to Canada at 2014 as a PhD. student at the Department of Food & Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan. Her research aims at studying the molecular mechanism of DHA biosynthesis through PUFA synthase in Thraustochytrium.          

Abstract:

Thraustochytrium sp. 26185 accumulates a high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutritionally important w-3 very long chain unsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFAs) synthesized primarily by a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase. However, the molecular mechanism of the PUFA synthase for positioning multiple cis-double bonds in the acyl chain remains elusive. The PUFA synthase in this species comprises three large subunits each with multiple catalytic domains. It was hypothesized that among these domains, ketoacylsynthase (KS) domains might be critical for retaining double bonds in the extended acyl chain. To investigate the function of these putative KS domains, two KS domains from  Subunit A (KS-A) and from Subunit B (KS-B) of the PUFA synthase were dissected and then expressed as standalone enzymes in Escherichia coli. The results showed that both KS-A and KS-B domains, but not the mutagenized ones could complement defective phenotypes of both E. coli FabB and FabF mutants.Overexpression of these domains in a wild type E. coli showed increases in the total fatty acid production. Successful complementation and functional expression of the embedded KS domains from the PUHA synthase in E. coli is the first step forward to study the molecular mechanism of the PUFA synthase for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs.

Biography:

William Hancock is completing his PhD at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine in the Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology. Utilizing an undergraduate background in Physics, he is pursuing a wider understanding of the impact of potent lipid derived signals in the control of transcriptional events related to physiology and pathophisiology.

Abstract:

Bone modeling is modulated by lipid signals, especially arachidonic acid and its metabolites. These lipid signals can be generated by phospholipases A2 which hydrolyze the sn-2 fatty acid substituent from membrane phospholipids; cellular AA is esterified in this position within membrane glycerophospholipids. Knockout mice lacking the group VIA calcium-independent phospholipases A2 beta (iPLA2β) exhibit an enhanced, age-related decline in cortical bone size, trabecular bone volume, and bone mineralizing surfaces. They also reveal a dramatic decrease in mineral apposition rate by 6-months of age and accelerated age-related lipid droplet accumulation in their bone marrow.  Current studies demonstrate that osteoblasts from calvaria of iPLA2β-knockout mice express lower levels of Runx2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and alkaline phosphatase mRNA, relative to WT osteoblasts.  These findings correlate with decreased osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast activity, as reflected by reduced mineralization determined by Alizarin Red staining and quantification. This reduction can be rescued by the treatment of osteoblasts with arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2, a cyclo-oxygenase-catalyzed metabolite of arachidonic acid, which is hydrolysed through activation of iPLA2β.  Prostaglandin E2 is known to increase osteoblast replication and differentiation. Our studies indicate that induction of differentiation factors and bone mineralization occur, in part, by activation of iPLA2β and subsequent generation of iPLA2β-derived lipid signals.  These findings indicate a prominent role for iPLA2β in determining mesenchymal stem cell fate, bone maintenance, and bone remodeling.

Speaker
Biography:

Cherryhan Salvedia Ebrahim completed her M.B.B.Ch from Cairo University. She is currently an Academic Researcher at Misr International University (MIU). She is an MSc student of Physiology at Ain Shams University, School of Medicine and anticipated completion date is October 2016. She is a Clinical Nutritionist, obtained her diploma from National Nutrition Institute. She is a Medical Supervisor at Patient Welfare department, a coordinator at the E-learning Unit and has supervised 2nd year students for data collection of assigned researches, School of Dentistry, MIU. She is an American Heart Association certified instructor of Basic Life Support for healthcare professionals.

Abstract:

Prunus armeniaca, commonly called Apricot, is grown widely. The Mediterranean region accounts for more than 55% of the world’s production. However, little is known about their potential health benefits. Apricot is thought to be rich in antioxidants because of its flavonoids and carotenoids contents. The dominant sugar in fruit tissue was sucrose. Fructose is considered a factor for several adverse health effects, a stimulant of de novo lipogenesis and hepatic lipogenesis. Recently, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has significantly and statistically increased in parallel with the increased contribution of fructose in our diets attributing more to the sweetened beverages. This study was conducted on 36 male albino rats over 10 weeks to study the antioxidant effect of the extract. 10 % Fructose solution was administered to two groups to induce hyperuricemia while a dose of 70 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered by oral gavage concurrently to one of the two groups. The fruit was purchased and an ethanol extract was obtained by sonication and evaporation at the pharmacognosy department of Cairo University. Results were compared to the control group and supported by laboratory and histopathological findings. The extract group showed lower plasma TG, NO, Creatinine and Uric acid levels than the fructose group (p value <0.001). NO and Creatinine were significantly higher than the control group (p value <0.001). Conclusion: The associating low NO and UA levels with the extract support its antioxidant and hypouricemic potentials.

 

Break: Lunch Break 12:30-13:30
Biography:

Ominyi Chidimma Emmanuel is running his M.Sc at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Nigeria. He is a staff of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana Nigeria. He has published about 5 (five) papers on reputed journals and presented about 6 (six) paper in conferences.

Abstract:

Oil was extracted from Chrysophyllum albidum seed using petroleum ether as solvent. The yield of the oil was found to be 4.9%. The result of characterization of the oil extract showed that it has iodine value of 163.3mg, Saponification value of 90.71mg, Acid value of 19.70 mg, Percentage Free Fatty Acid of 9.90% and Dirt content of 0.23%. The specific gravity of the oil at 250C and its content was found to be 0.8269 and 10.00% respectively. The color analysis gave Red, Yellow, Blue and Neutral to be 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1 and 0,0 respectively. Thus the oil was found to be a drying oil. The Fatty Acid Profile of the oil was also determined with the aid of gas liquid chromatography used fatty acids in methyl esters and was found to have Oleic Acid (C18:1) as the predominant fatty acid having an area of 10.10125%.  It was also found to contain Alpha Linoleic Acid (omega-3) and Linoleic Acid (omega-6) which are essential to the human body but cannot be synthesized by its metabolic processes.